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cultivate."* Not content with this general statement, which only
expresses an idea that had been a commonplace of educators since
the time of Quintilian, he proceeds to discuss in quite modern
fashion the various types of mind to be found in children, and
the educational treatment appropriate to each type.

The other teachers were probably less concerned about the
analysis of the child-mind in this manner, but they were at one
in seeking to adapt instruction to the child.  A striking illustration
of the general preoccupation with the devising of easy methods
of learning, is afforded by the fact that Pascal, though not himself
a teacher, invented the phonetic method of teaching readingóby
the use of the sound-values of the lettersófor the benefit of the
scholars of Port Royal.   The common principle of the school work
. was that learning should begin with what is familiar.   It was this
that led the teachers of the Little Schools, as it had led Comenius,
to make a beginning with the vernacular before going on to Latin;
but being less interested in knowledge for its own sake than
Comenius,   they  laid  stress   on   expression   rather   than   on
acquisition.   Their first aim was to make the children able to write
good French as a preparation for writing good Latin.  Incidentally,
however, they directed the children's minds to concrete things
and made them write on their own experiences or on subjects
about which they had been reading.   Once the pupils had made
good progress in French, they passed to the study of Latin, and
here again interest was sought in the familiar.   They were set
to learn the rules of grammar, it is true, but instead of having to
learn them in Latin, as was commonly done, they used an abridged
grammar written by Lancelot in French, and at the same time
made the acquaintance of the authors they were to study later
through specially prepared translations.  When they had acquired
some knowledge of grammar they proceeded to read and translate
the Latin authors;  and once more it was literary elegance that
was made the main consideration.   The chief rules for translation
were characteristic: " (a) The spirit and style of the original must
as far as possible be preserved;  (6) the difference between the
beauties of prose and of poetry must be reproduced in translation;
(c) the translation should not be slavishly literal, but should be
elegant and read like the work of a French author ; (d) the trans-
lation must be clear: if necessary, expand the original, or if its

* Barnard, p. 90.